Executive Order 13101: ``Greening the Government through Waste 
  Prevention, Recycling and Federal Acquisition'' issued on September 
  14, 1998, orders Federal agencies and departments to improve the 
  Federal Government's use of recycled products and environmentally 
  preferable products and services. For paper the following section is 
  most relevant:
    ``Sec. 505. Minimum Content Standard for Printing and Writing Paper. 
  Executive agency heads shall ensure that their agencies meet or exceed 
  the following minimum materials content standards when purchasing or 
  causing the purchase of printintg and writing paper: (a) For high 
  speed copier paper, offset paper, forms bond, computer printout paper, 
  carbonless paper. file folders, white wove envelopes, writing and 
  office paper, book paper, cotton fiber paper, and cover stock, the 
  minimum content standard shall be no less than 30 percent postconsumer 
  materials beginning December 31, 1998. If paper containing 30 percent 
  postconsumer material is not reasonably available, does not meet 
  reasonable performance requirements, or is only available at an 
  unreasonable price, then the agency shall purchase paper containing no 
  less than 20 percent postconsumer material. The Steering Committee, in 
  consultation with the AEEs, may revise these levels if necessary.
    (b) As an alternative to meeting the standards in sections 505(a), 
  for all printing and writing papers, the minimum content standard 
  shall be no less than 50 percent recovered materials that are a waste 
  material byproduct of a finished product other than a paper or textile 
  product that would otherwise be disposed of in a landfill, as 
  determined by the State in which the facility is located.
    (c) Effective January 1, 1999, no executive branch agency shall 
  purchase, sell, or arrange for the purchase of, printing and writing 
  paper that fails to meet the minimum requirements of this section.''
Filler: The percent (pct) calcium carbonate in the filler shall be 
  determined as follows:
    Method.--Weigh out approximately 1 g of paper to the nearest 1 mg, 
  making a correction for the moisture content (Note 1), and place it in 
  approximately 25 ml of water in a 125 ml Erlenmeyer flask. Pipet 20 ml 
  (Note 2) of standardized 0.1 N HCl into the flask, heat to boiling, 
  and boil for approximately 1 minute. Add 3 drops of aqueous methyl 
  red. Cool to room temperature and titrate to the first lemon yellow 
  with standardized 0.1 N NaOH solution.
    If a trace of pink indicator remains adsorbed on the surface of the 
  paper, boil the paper briefly to desorb the pink color. Usually a 
  further drop of NaOH solution will restore the lemon yellow to the 
  solution.
    Calculations.--Calculate the carbonate content of the paper as 
  percent calcium carbonate (CaCO3) as follows:


                                                 [(ml x N)HCl-(ml x N)NaOH] x 0.050
                                  CaCO3, pct =  ------------------------------------   x 100
                                                                  g


  where 0.050 is the milliequivalent weight of CaCO3 and g is 
  the weight of the specimen. Duplicate determinations should agree 
  within 0.3 pct CaCO3.
    Report.--Report the carbonate content as percent CaCO3 of 
  the oven-dry paper to the nearest 0.1 pct.
    Note 1--The specimen for analysis may be dried and weighed, or a 
  separate portion may be used for moisture determination.
    Note 2--For a 1 g specimen, 20 ml of 0.1 HCl is sufficient to 
  neutralize the carbonate in a paper containing about 10 pct carbonate.
    Note 3--This is not a direct determination of CaCO3, but 
  a measure of alkalinity expressed as CaCO3. Other alkaline 
  materials will affect the determination.
Flap adhesive thickness: Adhesive thickness shall be determined by 
  subtracting the average thickness (T-411) of the ungummed portion of 
  the flap from the average thickness of the gummed portion of the flap.
Fluorescence: See optical brightener.
Folding endurance: Use method T-423 (Schopper) or T-511 (M.I.T.). Report 
  the average of not less than 5 measurements.
Formaldehyde: Use method 111, ``Tentative Method of Analysis for 
  Formaldehyde Content of the Atmosphere (Colorimetric Method)'' (43502-
  01-69T), by the Intersociety Committee, Methods of Air Sampling and 
  Analysis, American Public Health Association, Washington, D.C., 1972, 
  pp 194-198. Additional information may be obtained from the 
  Association, 1015 15th Street, N.W., Suite 300, Washington, DC 20005 
  (www.apha.org).
Gloss: Use method T-480 for 75 deg. or T-653 for 20 deg..
Grain: See machine direction.
Grammage: Use method T-410.
Groundwood pulp: Papermaking fibers produced by mechanical means; does 
  not include bleached chemi-thermo-mechanical pulps (BCTMP), a semi-
  chemical pulp. Also see stock.
Ink absorbency: Use method T-431.
Light transmission: Use method E-308 of ASTM.
Lignin: The percent (pct) lignin in paper shall be determined 
  spectrophotometrically as follows:
    (1) Remove the calcium carbonate filler from a 5 by 5 cm paper 
  sample by placing it in hot (99  deg.C) 0.1 N HCl until effervescence 
  is complete.
    (2) Rinse paper sample with distilled water.
    (3) Place sample in 85  deg.C oven (for a few minutes) until dry.
    (4) Trim paper to fit the sample holder of spectrophotometer.
    (5) Clamp the paper sample which has been moistened with a drop of 
  tetrachloroethylene between the potassium bromide windows.
    (6) Obtain an infrared (IR) spectrum by averaging 50 scans with a 
  Fourier transform infrared spectrometer.
    (7) IR spectral data must be expressed in ``absorbance'' rather than 
  ``transmittance''. The background spectrum (air blank) should be no 
  more than two hours old.
    (8) Calculate lignin using the following equation:
    pct lignin (of fibrous material)
            = (L/C + 0.033)  x  132.45
  where
    L=the integrated area bounded by the IR absorption band and baseline 
  from 1540 cm-1 to 1490 cm-1
    C=the integrated area bounded by the IR absorption band and baseline 
  from 3000 cm-1 to 2800 cm-1.
Machine direction: Use method T-409.